International Ichthyoparasitology Newsletter No. 5 May 1996
Editor: Kazuya Nagasawa, National Research Institute of Far Seas
Fisheries, Orido, Shimizu, Shizuoka 424, Japan. Rapidfax:+81 543
35 9642; Internet (E-mail): email@example.com
Associate Editors: David I. Gibson, The Natural History Museum,
Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD, United Kingdom. Rapidfax: +44 171
938 8754; Internet (E-mail): firstname.lastname@example.org ; J. Richard Arthur,
Maurice Lamontagne Institute, PO Box 1000, Mont-Joli, Quebec G5H
3Z4, Canada. Rapidfax: +1 418 775 0542 ; Internet (E-mail):
Regional Representatives: M. O. de Nunez (Argentina); T. H. Cribb
(Australia); A. Kohn (Brazil); J. R. Arthur (Canada); M. E. Oliva
(Chile); F. Moravec (Czech Republic); K. Buchmann (Denmark); E.
T. Valtonen (Finland); P. Bartoli (France); R. Hoffmann
(Germany); K. Molnar (Hungary); R. Madhavi (India); I. Paperna
(Israel); L. Paggi (Italy); S. Kamegai (Japan); P. Aloo (Kenya);
L. H. S. Lim (Malaysia); Brett Wesney (New Zealand); K. I. Andersen
(Norway); K. Niewiadomska (Poland); O. N. Pugachev (Russia);
J. G. Van As (South Africa); J. A. Raga (Spain); J. Thulin (Sweden);
T. Wahli (Switzerland); K. Supamattaya (Thailand); A. V. Gaevskaya
(Ukraine); R. A. Bray (U.K.); R. M. Overstreet (U.S.A.); M. I.
* * * * CONTENTS * * * *
Fourth International Symposium of Ichthyoparasitology
Fifth International Symposium of Ichthyoparasitology Current research activities in various countries (Israel, Ukraine, India, Denmark)
Seventh European Multicolloquium of Parasitology
* * * * E D I T O R I A L * * * *
Another year, which included an exciting Fourth International
Symposium on Ichthyoparasitology, has passed by. Many fish parasitologists
(250 people from 26 countries) met together, discussed
parasites and tested the beer at Munich, Germany, during October
1995. The highlights of the Munich meeting are outlined in this
This particular issue (No. 5) is reaching you late, because I
was Seattle during the early spring conducting a joint study with
I should like to thank the following persons for their contributions
to this issue: R. Hedrick, R. Hoffmann, D. I. Gibson, I.
Paperna, A. Gaevskaja, A. K. Das, R. Madhavi and K. Buchmann.
Electric mail via the Internet is now available to many
recipients of the Newsletter. The Editor (K. Nagasawa) and
Associate Editors (D. I. Gibson or J. R. Arthur) are able to send
you the Newsletter through Internet directly and quickly. This
enable us reduce the time and cost involved in distribution. If
you wish to receive the newsletter in this form, please contact
one of us. We shall also try to make the newsletter available on
David Gibson's Web pages (at: http://dspace.dial.pipex.com/town/
Due to pressure of work, I feel that I must stand down as the
Editor of this Newsletter. I am proud to have been the founding
editor and have enjoyed putting together the first five issues.
Dr. Glenn Bristow (Norway) has kindly agreed to take over the
editorship for the next issue.
For anyone wishing to contribute to "International Ichthyoparasitology
Newsletter", the deadline for submission of
information for the next No. 6 issue is 15 December 1996 (please
see the "Editorial Policy").
**** FOURTH INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON ICHTHYOPARASITOLOGY ****
October 3-7, 1995, Munich, Germany
The Fourth International Symposium on Ichthyoparasitology was
held during October 3-7, 1995 at the Institute of Zoology, Fish
Biology and Fish Diseases, University of Munich, Germany. The
symposium, organised by Professor Dr. Rudolf Hoffmann and Dr.
Mansour El-Matbouli, hosted 250 scientists from 26 countries for
an excellent scientific and social program. The scientific
program consisted of 7 plenary lectures, 109 contributed papers
and 52 posters on a wide-range of topics concerning on fish
parasites, from the ecosystem to molecular level.
All of the presentations and posters were of an excellent
standard, with new and stimulating data which add to our
knowledge of fish parasites and their impact on the fish host.
The conference began with a historical perspective on early
investigations on fish parasites at the University of Munich and
then moved to detailed descriptions on the distribution of the
helminth parasites among fish populations and their influence on
fish community structures. A review of new developments with
protozoan parasites preceded in depth descriptions of newly
recognized life cycles for the Myxozoa, including previously
unknown alternate stages (actinosporeans) and the means by which
they invade the fish host. The utility of molecular and cellular
approaches were evident in reports confirming the identity of
corresponding myxosporean and actinosporean stages and studies
into the potential origins of the Myxozoa. Advantages of these
molecular tools as applied to fish parasitology were also
demonstrated in studies probing the function and phylogenetic
relationships of microsporidians, trypanosomes and helminth
While employing molecular tools were stressed, it was clear
that a continued need exists for accurate, detailed and concise
morphological descriptions of fish parasites as they relate to
structure, function and taxonomy. Many high quality reports
described these features of fish parasites which form the basis
for further work at the cellular and molecular levels.
The role of therapeutics to control fish parasites was
reviewed and then followed by individual reports on treatments
that have shown promise for both histozoic and external parasites
of fish. Future studies on vaccination as a method of controlling
parasites and the underlying immunological mechanisms that must
be understood for their efficacy were only briefly discussed.
Woven into this comprehensive scientific program were visits
to the German Museum of Hunting and Fisheries, the beautiful
lake at Koenigsee, the fisheries field station at Wielenbach and
the monastery and brewery at Andechs. The scientific sessions and
informal dialog and social programs provided all the participants
of the Fourth International Symposium on Ichthyoparasitology
with fresh perspectives. The participants left Munich with new
and renewed cooperations and friendships that will forge future
advances in fish parasitology. These aforementioned qualities of
the symposium attest to its success. In closing, success is
earned. In this case it came from the hard work of the
organisers, their staff and the many participants who came and presented
their research findings.
Ron Hedrick (School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis)
A limited number of copies of the Abstract Volume is still
available at a price of 25 DM plus postage.
Rudolf W. Hoffmann (University of Munich)
* * * * A N N O U N C E M E N T S * * * *
1. The Fifth International Symposium on Ichthyoparasitology
During the Symposium at Munich, the Symposium Committee met
and was pleased to accept the invitation from the Czech Republic
to hold the next meeting. The Fifth Symposium will, therefore,
take place at Ceske Budejovice in 1999 and will be organised by
Dr. F. Moravec and his colleagues. The Committee was delighted
to receive offers from six other countries who were willing to
provide reserve venues.
Having completed its task, the Committee [Drs. R. Arthur
(Canada), D.I. Gibson (UK, Chairman), E. Ieshko (Russia), K.
Molnar (Hungary), K. Ogawa (Japan), O. Pugachev (Russia), E.T.
Valtonen (Finland)] was replaced by a new Committee [Drs. K.
Buchmann (Denmark), Prof. A.V. Gaevskaja (Ukraine), Prof. R.
Hoffmann (Germany), C.M. Morrison (Canada), K. Ogawa (Japan,
Chairman), T. Scholz (Czech Republic)].
David Gibson (The Natural History Museum, London)
2. Seventh European Multicolloquium of Parasitology
EMOP VII will take place at Parma, Italy (2-6 Sept., 1996)
and will have a significant ichthyoparasitological content:
The Symposium "Parasites of fish" organised by Lia Paggi and
David Gibson will have two sessions: one with five invited
talks; one with 12 submitted talks; plus a poster session with
c. 50 posters. The invited talks are:
Christina Sommerville - Current approaches to sea lice research.
Tor Bakke - Recent development in Gyrodactylus research.
Frank Moravec - New developments in the research on Anguillicola spp., pathogenic nematode
parasites of eels.
Simonetta Mattiucci - Genetic and ecological research on marine anisakid nematodes.
Clive Kennedy - Predictability of helminth communities of freshwater fish.
There will also be a Symposium on "Fish parasites as
indicators of environmental quality" organised by Ilan Paperna
and Glenn Bristow.
Overstreet, R. (US): Parasitological data as monitors of environmental health.
Subject 1: Does, and how xenobiotic substances affect parasite
communities?: Are fish affected by pollution prior to the
parasites or parasites before fish?
Gelnar, M. et al. (Czech Republic): Biodiversity of parasites in
freshwater in relation to pollution.
Subject 2: Fish parasites as early warning system for environmental deterioration.
Khan, R.A. (Canada): A multidisciplinary approach using
biomarkers, including parasites as indicators of pollution.
Taraschewski, H. & Sures, B. (Germany): Heavy metal
concentrations in parasites compared to their fish hosts:
bioconcentration by acanthocephalans and cestodes.
Hoole, D. (UK): The effect of pollution on the immune response
of fish: implications for parasite fauna.
McVicar, A.H. (UK): The development of marine environmental
monitors using fish diseases.
Subject 3: What ecological models and quantitative parameters
may be applied in use of parasites as bio-indicators of
Marcogliese, D.J. & Cone, D.K. (Canada): Parasite communities as
indicators of ecosystem stress.
Valtonen, E.T., Holmes, J.C. & Koskivaara, M. (Finland):
Eutrophication, pollution and fragmentation: effects on the
parasite communities in roach (Rutilus rutilus) and perch
(Perca fluviatilis) in four lakes in central Finland.
Yeoman, W.E., Chubb, J.C. & Sweeting, R.A. (UK): Use of protozoan
communities for pollution detection.
Lotz, J. (US): Quantitative aspects of evaluating the consequence
of pollution for parasite populations and communities: models
and data analysis.
d'Amelio, S. (Italy): Evaluation of environmetal deterioration
by analysis fish parasite biodiversity and community
Halvorsen, O., Harvigsen, R.D. & Norborg, P.C. (Norway): Search
for spatial patterns and their underlying causes in fish
Discussion: Can parasite species ever serve as indicator species?
Opening comments by C. R. Kennedy.
David Gibson (The Natural History Museum, London)
Glenn Bristow (University of Bergen)
* * * CURRENT RESEARCH ACTIVITIES IN VARIOUS COUNTRIES * * *
I. ISRAEL [provided by I. Paperna]
Long-term ichthyoparasitological research conducted in the
Israeli laboratories centers on some of the more persistent
parasitic infections of economic importance in the farmed fish,
namely, coccidiosis in cichlids and ornamental cyprinids (by I.
Paperna and M. Vilenkin, Faculty of Agriculture of the Hebrew
University of Jerusalem, in collaboration with W. Koerting and
D. Steinhagen of the School of Veterinary Medicine, Hannover,
Germany); the biology of Contracaecum of piscivorus fish
infecting farmed tilapia (by I. Paperna et al., with L. Paggi
et al. of La Sapienza, University of Rome); Myxospora in grey
mullets (by I. Paperna et al.) and epizootiology and pathology
of myxosporan infections in farmed sea bream (by A. Diamant,
National Center for Mariculture, Eilat, Israel Oceanographic &
Indispensable information is provided through the routine
disease diagnosis of farmed food fish as well as ornamental
fish carried out in the following laboratories: Laboratory for
the Research of Fish Diseases, Nir David (by I. Bejerano et
al.); National Center for Mariculture, Eilat (by A. Diamant
and A. Colorni); Migal Laboratory, serving fish farm of north
Israel (by A. Hammerschlag); and Maagan Michael Laboratory in
the coastal region (by R. Ariav). Finding from the routine
service work provides the necessary information for setting up
relevant goals and priorities for the direction of applicable
research on fish parasites as well as on other causes of
diseases in the aquaculture system. These organisations are
also engaged in the testing and development of parasiticides
and other relevant preventive measures to counter epizootic
infections in the farms. Diagnosis and surveillance of diseases
of freshwater farmed fish has been carried out in Israel since
1950, and of sea-farmed fish since 1973. Nonetheless, we are
still repeatedly challenged by new aetiological agents including
both protistan and metazoan parasites, which require our
attention and efforts to devise means to alleviate their harmful
effects. The continuous flux of pathogens into our mariculture
system is inevitable as we deal with a relatively new enterprise,
fish are kept in open systems (constant circulation or sea cages)
and we are still in the process of introducing wild species into
artificial rearing. The main sources for new infections in
freshwater systems are the ornamental fish imports, particularly
cyprinids (ornamental carp and goldfish). Our inland water
farming systems are also in a continuous transition through
intensification and introduction of new holding methods.
Improvement in water quality seems to facilitate entry into
culture system of parasites previously found only in native fish
in natural habitats. These, once established, proliferate to
morbid infections in farmed stocks. Improvement in water quality
also facilitates proliferation of invertebrate vectors of
parasitic helminths in these systems (copepods and the molluscs
Bulinus truncatus, Lymnaea spp., and Melania tuberculata). The
spread of metacercariae (Centrocestus, clinostomatids and
diplostomatids) and larval nematode (Contracaecum) infections
via piscivorus birds (pelicans and herons) is enhanced as these
birds frequent fish ponds once their habitats are increasingly
eliminated. I. Paperna as well as A. Diamant and their students
in collaboration with the professional staff of the diagnostic
services are currently engaged in identification and description
of these new, and newly encountered aetiological agents (to
mention some; intestinal and tissular Cryptobia spp., Hexamita
of tilapia, aetiological agents of goldfish and tilapia visceral
granuloma, Cryptosporidium in intestines
of marine fishes, Coccidia in grey mullets, Sanguinicola in
cichlids, Bothriocephalus acheilognathi in ornamental carp),
their biology, and their effect on the fish.
Another aspect of fish parasitological research carried out
in Israel is in the context of environmental protection and
effects of marine pollution: two long-term studies are in
progress on the potential use of parasite population parameters
and indices as bio-indicators of environmental deterioration of
coastal marine habitats by anthropogenic interference. The first
framework of EC-AVICENNE initiative carried out in I. Paperna
laboratory in collaboration with L. Paggi and P. Orreccia, Rome,
Italy; A. Elefteriou, Crete, Greece; and L. Abou-Basha,
Alexandria, Egypt. The second program supported by the German
Ministry of Science aims to correlate parasitological parameters
with chemical (pollutant resides) metabolic and pathological
findings and involves both I. Paperna & A. Diamant laboratories
in collaboration with German scientists (W. Koerting, Hannover,
and von Westerhagen, Hamburg).
II. UKRAINE [provided by A. Gaevskaja]
Department of Ecological Foundations of the Control of Hydrobiont
Parasitoses, Shmalgauzen Institute of Zoology, National Academy
of Sciences of Ukraine, B. Khmelnitsky st. 15, Kiev 30, 252601,
Ukraine. Fax: 380 (44) 224 15 69, Tel: 380 (44) 10 70. Email:
Basic aims of the Department's activities:
i) A study of species composition, biology and ecology of fish
parasites under normal, artificial and farming conditions;
ii) Elaboration of methods for treatment and predicting diseases
of fishes and other hydrobionts.
The staff includes 5 research scientists:
Otto N. Davydov, Head of Department. Research topics: ecology of
parasites; host, parasites and environment interaction, means
of protection of hydrobionts against diseases.
Igor A. Balachnin, senior research scientist. Research topic:
fish immunity - immune status during infection, genetic aspects
of resistance to diseases.
Larisa Y. Kurovskaya, senior research scientist. Research topic:
physiology of fish-parasite interaction.
Natalya M. Isaeva, senior research scientist. Research topic:
fish mycoses and mycotoxicoses and their treatment and
Sergey S. Gunkovsky, junior research scientist. Has collected
data for his PhD "Parasites of farmed salmonids in Ukraine".
III. INDIA [provided by A. K. Das and R. Madhavi]
1. Zoological Survey of India (ZSI), 'M' Block, New Alipore,
Calcutta 700 053, India: A. K. Das and N. C. Nandi.
ZSI is a national survey organisation which was established
in 1916. It concentrates mainly on exploration and survey of
faunal resources of India, from Protozoa to Mammalia
(including their parasitofauna), and undertakes research on
taxonomy, ecology, and wildlife.
While working on the "State Fauna" of India, 5 scientists
belonging to the Lower Invertebrate Division of the ZSI
(headed by Dr. A. K. Das) have studied a large number of
protozoan and helminth parasites of fishes in various states,
manly from the taxonomic viewpoint, as follows:
i. State Fauna of West Bengal, India
Under this project, 143 species of Protozoa have been
dealt with from 65 species of fish hosts (Fauna of West
Bengal, Part 12, State Fauna Series, 3: 135-468, 1993).
Furthermore, 14 species of Cestoda and 22 species of
Nematoda are also recorded from 15 and 17 species of fishes,
ii. State Fauna of Meghalaya, India
In all 2 protozoans, 14 cestodes, 9 trematodes and 5
nematodes have been recovered from 2, 7, 8 and 4 species
of fish hosts, respectively.
iii. State Fauna of Tripura, India
In this project 4 species of protozoans, cestodes and
nematodes have been recorded from 4 species of fishes and
5 trematodes from 20 species of fishes.
iv. Protozoa Fauna of Sundarban Mangrove Ecosystem, India
A total of 14 species of parasitic protozoans have been
reported from 12 species of fishes inhabiting Sundarban
mangroves (Rec. Zool. Surv. India, 93: 83-101, 1993).
v. Epizootic Ulcerative Syndrome in Fishes
Epizootiology of the ulcerative disease in the fishes of
West Bengal was studied and the occurrence of a flagellate,
Ichthyobodo necator (=Costia necatrix) associated with the
disease was reported for the first time (Indian J. Fish.,
2. University of Madras, Department of Zoology, Madras 600 025,
India: P. Ramaswamy.
Dr. P. Ramaswamy and his team of students are working on the
biology, ecology, ultrastructure and physiology of helminth
parasites, in particular monogeneans, of fishes. They are
concentrating their studies on the biology of Euclinostomum
spp. from Channa striatus, the ultrastructure of marine
monogeneans, the parasites of cultured tilapia, and microbial
diseases of prawns.
3. Theagraya College, Department of Zoology, Pathobiology Unit,
Madrass 600 021, India: S. Jayadeva Babu.
Mrs. Ponmozhi Gokulanathan and Dr. S. Jayadeva Babu have been
studying, for the past three years, the macroparasites of
freshwater table fishes from the Kirshnagiri Reservoir of Tamil
4. Ravishankar University, Department of Biosciences, Raipur
492 010, India: A. K. Gupta.
Investigations on various aspects of ichthyoparasitology
have been carried out, including pathophysiology, pathology,
histochemistry, histoenzymology and detailed taxonomic
studies. The themes include Monogenea of fishes (families
Siluridae, Clariidae, Bagariidae, Heteropneustidae, and
Mastacembalidae), Acanthocephala (Pallisentis nagpurensis
from Channa punctatus), bacteria of freshwater fishes
(siluroids), and the pathophysiology of Channa puctatus (under
EUS attack). The osmotic behaviour of Lytocestus indicus
(Cestoda) and its excretory products have also been studied.
5. University of Kerala, Department of Aquatic Biology and Fisheries,
Trivandrum 695 007, India: S. Radhakrishnan.
Dr. Radhakrishnan and his group are actively studying parasitic
infections of freshwater fishes in terms of ecology and
population dynamics. Flatfishes are also studied. He has
completed a detailed survey of ergasilids on fishes in Kerala
waters, and a study of microhabitat ecology of these parasitic
copepods is in progress. His other fields of research include
acanthocephalan infections on snakeheads, metazoan parasites
of mullets, the myxozoan fauna of local fishes, and nematodes
of freshwater fishes.
6. University of Allahabad, Department of Zoology, Parasitology
Laboratory, Allahabad 211 002, India: Sandeep K. Malhotra
Dr. Malhotra is actively studying the ecosegregation in
parasitocoenosis in high altitude ecosystems. He has reviewed
both ecological ichthyoparasitology in India and the
correlation between the systematics and environment of the
black spot disease in Indian fishes. His major contribution
here is a study on the effects of pollution on the population
dynamics of a bucephalid in Entropiichthyes sp.
7. Andhra University, Department of Zoology, Division of Proto-
zoology, Visakhapatnam 530 003, India: C. Kalvati
Prof. Kalavati is currently engaged in the study of
myxosporean parasites of deep-water fishes from the Bay of
Bengal, assessing the feasibility of their use as biological
tags. Together with Dr. Padma Dorothy of the same institution,
she is also involved in laboratory experimental studies with
tubificids, ostracods and bryozoans as possible intermediate
hosts in myxosporean life cycles.
8. Andhra University, Department of Zoology, Division of Applied
Parasitology, Visakhapatnam 530 003, India: R. Madhavi
Prof. Madhavi's school of parasitologists are still active in helminth studies
of both marine and freshwater
fishes. Recently, her student
completed a comprehensive thesis
on clinostome trematodes. This
study includes taxonomy, biology
and micro-ecological surveys of
the infections. Prof. Madhavi
and Dr. Meenakshi Murugesh have
published their long-awaited information
on didymozoid digeneans. A number
of papers have appeared on helminth
parasites of scombrid fishes from
the Visakhapatnam coast. Prof.
Madhavi is continuing her studies
on the parasite fauna of mullets
and is now incorporating additional
information on the effects of
pollution on helminth infections
IV. DENMARK [provided by K. Buchmann]
A group of researchers in Denmark are currently engaged in a
programme with the title, "Disease prevention, genetics and
nutrition in the production of rainbow trout", supported by the
Danish Research Councils. Viral, bacteriological and parasitological
infections in selected trout farms in Denmark are
monitored and a number of parameters (management, feed,
temperature, oxygen) are recorded as well. By the use of
microsatelites the genetics of the trout strains are elucidated.
A number of new rainbow trout parasite species (geographical
records) for Denmark have been listed. In addition, work has been
conducted to elucidate the ecology of eye flukes in Danish trout
farms. Studies on in vitro cultivation of Hexamita salmonis are
in progress. Experiments elucidating the susceptibility of Danish
strains of rainbow trout to infections with Gyrodactylus salaris
and G. derjavini have been planned.
* * * * N E W B O O K * * * *
Gibson, D. I. (1996): Trematoda. In: Margolis, L. & Kabata, Z.
(Eds), Guide to the parasites of fishes of Canada. Part IV.
Can. Spec. Publ. Fish. Aquat. Sci., no 124, 373 pp. [ISBN 0-
660-16403-5; NRC Research Press, National Research Council of
Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6, Canada; $50 (Can)].
More than 80 keys leading to the identification of more than
220 species of trematode parasites of Canadian fishes are
provided. Diagnoses of more than 80 family-group taxa and 130
genera are given. A representative of each genus is illustrated.
For each species of trematode a Canadian host list, locality
data and any relevant remarks are included. In addition, a host-
parasite list is given plus parasite and host indices.
* * * * O B I T U A R Y * * * *
Adilja Kovaljova (1937-1995)
Adilja A. Kovaljova died on September 28, 1995; she was 58
years old. The cause of her death was cancer.
Adilja graduated from Lvov University (Ukraine) and began her
work with marine parasites, mainly helminths, as a junior
scientist at Karadag Branch of the Institute of Biology of the
Southern Seas (Crimea). She completed her dissertation on
helminths of carangid fishes in 1970. She also worked at the
Atlantic Research Institute of Fisheries and Oceanography
(AtlantNIRO), Kaliningrad, from 1970 to 1995. She was first a
senior scientist but in 1987 she was appointed as a head of
parasitological division of this institute. During her 33 years
of work, Adilja published more than 100 articles, alone or with
others, on marine parasites. For the last 20 years, the main
objects of her research were myxosporeans. Her studies of marine
myxosporeans contributed to our present knowledge of the
taxonomy, ecology and geographical distribution of these
protozoans. She described many new species and genera and some
new families of myxosporeans. Moreover, some species of
parasites (e.g. Gonapodasmius kobaljovae, Stephanostomum
kovaljovae, etc) are named for her.
Adilja was a bright woman and enjoyed marine parasitology. She
was my best friend.
Albina Gaevskaja (Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas)
* * * * E D I T O R I A L P O L I C Y * * * *
Please note that material for the next issue should be sent
to Dr. Glenn Bristow, Zoologisk Institutt, Universitetet i
Bergen, Allegaten 41, N-5007 Bergen, Norway (e-mail: glenn.
At present, the Newsletter is planned to be issued once a
year. The persons listed on the cover page act as regional
representatives. Each representative will write or collect
information from the members of each country or region.
Naturally, direct contributions from any recipient to the
Newsletter will be acknowledged. Any news, notices, comments,
etc. that you feel would be of interest to the world's ichthyoparasitologists
are welcomed. For the present, in order to
save postal charges, one copy of each issue of the Newsletter
will be sent to each representative, who will produce copies
for his or her domestic members. When it is impossible to make
copies, please advise me. In addition, the Newsletter is
available by E-mail. Those who have an E-mail address are advised
to contact the Editor (K. Nagasawa) or Assistant Editors (D. I.
Gibson or J. R. Arthur) and enable us to distribute information
on ichthyoparasitology throughout the world quickly and cheaply.